Education


Research Interests

I am poised to make an impact to improve water quality in streams, rivers and lakes by improving ways we design and manage treatment systems in agricultural and urban settings. Treatment systems are systems that intercept ground- and surface waters on their way to receiving water bodies. Until now, my team’s study treatment systems have included soils, riparian zones, streams, wetlands, and denitrification beds. Treatment systems are still very much treated as ‘blackbox’ reactors which hinders our ability to improve their design and maintenance.

I believe that a prerequisite to improve treatment efficiency is to ‘look inside the blackbox’ and largely enhance our understanding and quantification of the internal functioning of treatment systems. My team’s core method is the deployment and adaptation of newly available continuous water quality sensors to obtain concentration data at a high resolution in space and in time.

My team is exploring the possibility to, and the conditions for, use water quality rating curves with these sensors, particularly to difficult-to-measure pollutants and nutrients. We are expanding the capababilities to resolution in space of these instruments by fitting them with sequential autosamplers, allowing to obtain high resolution data both in space and in time. We also use this technology to explore the bioegeochemical functioning at the watershed scale and to calculate uncertainties on nutrient loads.


Awards


Academic Roles


Research Income and Grants

This following section provides a summary of research income to date which totals $5,695,207, with $1,632,374 as Principal Investigator (PI) and $4,062,833 as Co-Investigator (Co-PI).



Teaching and mentoring


Refereed Journal Articles (43)

2018 (6)

Addy, K, A. J. Gold, J. A. Loffredo, A. W. Schroth, S. P. Inamdar, W. B. Bowden, D. Q. Kellogg and F. Birgand (2018). “Stream response to an extreme drought-induced defoliation event”. In: Biogeochemistry. DOI: 10.1007/s10533-018-0485-3. URL: https://doi.org/10.1007/s10533-018-0485-3.

Harmel, R. D, K. King, D. Busch, D. Smith, F. Birgand and B. Haggard (2018). “Measuring edge-of-field water quality: Where we have been and the path forward”. In: J. Soil Water Conserv. 73.1, pp. 86-96. DOI: 10.2489/jswc.73.1.86.

Howden, N. J. K, F. Birgand, T. Burt and F. Worrall (2018). “The seven sources of variance in fluvial flux time series”. In: Hydrol. Process.. Publication No. 174 98, p. 182. DOI: 10.1002/hyp.13300. URL: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/hyp.13300.

Maxwell, B. M, F. Birgand, B. Smith and K. Aveni-Deforge (2018). “A small-volume multiplexed pumping system for automated, high-frequency water chemistry measurements in volume-limited applications”. En. In: Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 22.11, pp. 5615-5628. DOI: 10.5194/hess-22-5615-2018. URL: https://www.hydrol-earth-syst-sci.net/22/5615/2018/.

Shiau, Y, M. R. Burchell, K. W. Krauss, S. W. Broome and F. Birgand (2018). “Carbon storage potential in a recently created brackish marsh in eastern North Carolina, USA”. In: Ecol. Eng.. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2018.09.007. URL: http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0925857418303446.

Vongvixay, A, C. Grimaldi, R. Dupas, O. Fovet, F. Birgand, N. Gilliet and C. Gascuel-Odoux (2018). “Contrasting Suspended Sediment Export In Two Small Agricultural Catchments: Cross-influence Of Hydrological Behaviour and Landscape Degradation or Stream Bank Management”. In: Land Degrad. Dev.. DOI: 10.1002/ldr.2940. URL: http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/ldr.2940.

2017 (6)

Etheridge, J. R, M. R. Burchell II and F. Birgand (2017). “Can created tidal marshes reduce nitrate export to downstream estuaries?” In: Ecol. Eng. 105, pp. 314-324. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2017.05.009.

Messer, T. L, M. R. Burchell and F. Birgand (2017). “Comparison of Four Nitrate Removal Kinetic Models in Two Distinct Wetland Restoration Mesocosm Systems”. En. In: Water 9.7, p. 517. DOI: 10.3390/w9070517.

Messer, T. L, M. R. Burchell, F. Birgand, S. W. Broome and G. Chescheir (2017). “Nitrate removal potential of restored wetlands loaded with agricultural drainage water: A mesocosm scale experimental approach”. In: Ecol. Eng. 106.Part A, pp. 541-554. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2017.06.022.

Muwamba, A, D. M. Amatya, G. M. Chescheir, J. E. Nettles, T. Appelboom, H. Ssegane, E. W. Tollner, M. A. Youssef, F. Birgand, R. W. Skaggs and S. Tian (2017). “Water Quality Effects Of Switchgrass Intercropping On Pine Forest In Coastal North Carolina”. In: Trans. ASABE 60.5. DOI: 10.13031/trans.12181.

Ssegane, H, D. M. Amatya, A. Muwamba, G. M. Chescheir, T. Appelboom, E. W. Tollner, J. E. Nettles, M. A. Youssef, F. Birgand and R. W. Skaggs (2017). “Calibration of paired watersheds: Utility of moving sums in presence of externalities”. In: Hydrol. Process. 31.20, pp. 3458-3471. DOI: 10.1002/hyp.11248.

Vaughan, M. C. H, W. B. Bowden, J. B. Shanley, A. Vermilyea, R. Sleeper, A. J. Gold, S. M. Pradhanang, S. P. Inamdar, D. F. Levia, A. S. Andres, F. Birgand and A. W. Schroth (2017). “High-frequency dissolved organic carbon and nitrate measurements reveal differences in storm hysteresis and loading in relation to land cover and seasonality”. In: Water Resour. Res. 53.7, pp. 5345-5363. DOI: 10.1002/2017WR020491.

2016 (4)

Birgand, F, K. Aveni-Deforge, B. Smith, B. Maxwell, M. Horstman, A. B. Gerling and C. C. Carey (2016). “First report of a novel multiplexer pumping system coupled to a water quality probe to collect high temporal frequency in situ water chemistry measurements at multiple sites”. In: Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 14.12, pp. 767-783. DOI: 10.1002/lom3.10122.

Burnette, M. C, D. P. Genereux and F. Birgand (2016). “In-situ falling-head test for hydraulic conductivity: Evaluation in layered sediments of an analysis derived for homogenous sediments”. In: J. Hydrol. 539, pp. 319-329. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2016.05.030.

Gilmore, T. E, D. P. Genereux, D. K. Solomon, J. E. Solder, B. A. Kimball, H. Mitasova and F. Birgand (2016). “Quantifying the fate of agricultural nitrogen in an unconfined aquifer: Stream-based observations at three measurement scales”. In: Water Resour. Res. 52.3, pp. 1961-1983. DOI: 10.1002/2015WR017599.

Shiau, Y, M. R. Burchell, K. W. Krauss, F. Birgand and S. W. Broome (2016). “Greenhouse Gas Emissions from a Created Brackish Marsh in Eastern North Carolina”. En. In: Wetlands 36.6, pp. 1009-1024. DOI: 10.1007/s13157-016-0815-y.

2015 (5)

Billy, V. de, J. Tournebize, G. Barnaud, M. Benoît, F. Birgand, J. Garnier, B. Lesaffre, C. Lévêque, G. de Marsily, S. Muller, A. Musy and D. Zimmer (2015). “Compenser la destruction de zones humides. Retours d’expérience sur les méthodes et réflexions inspirées par le projet d’aéroport de Notre-Dame-des-Landes (France)”. Fr. In: Nat. Sci. Soc 23.1, pp. 27-41. DOI: 10.1051/nss/2015008.

Etheridge, J. R, F. Birgand and M. R. Burchell II (2015). “Quantifying nutrient and suspended solids fluxes in a constructed tidal marsh following rainfall: The value of capturing the rapid changes in flow and concentrations”. In: Ecol. Eng. 78, pp. 41-52. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2014.05.021.

Muwamba, A, D. M. Amatya, H. Ssegane, G. M. Chescheir, T. Appelboom, E. W. Tollner, J. E. Nettles, M. A. Youssef, F. Birgand, R. W. Skaggs and S. Tian (2015). “Effects of Site Preparation for Pine Forest/Switchgrass Intercropping on Water Quality”. En. In: J. Environ. Qual. 44.4, pp. 1263-1272. DOI: 10.2134/jeq2014.11.0505.

Osburn, C. L, M. P. Mikan, J. R. Etheridge, M. R. Burchell and F. Birgand (2015). “Seasonal variation in the quality of dissolved and particulate organic matter exchanged between a salt marsh and its adjacent estuary”. In: J. Geophys. Res. Biogeosci. 120.7, p. 2014JG002897. DOI: 10.1002/2014JG002897.

Polizzotto, M. L, F. Birgand, A. B. M. Badruzzaman and M. A. Ali (2015). “Amending irrigation channels with jute-mesh structures to decrease arsenic loading to rice fields in Bangladesh”. In: Ecol. Eng. 74, pp. 101-106. DOI: 10.1016/j.ecoleng.2014.10.030.

2014 (3)

Etheridge, J. R, F. Birgand, M. R. Burchell II, A. Lepistö, K. Rankinen and K. Granlund (2014). “Technical Note: Alternative in-stream denitrification equation for the INCA-N model”. En. In: Hydrol. Earth Syst. Sci. 18.4, pp. 1467-1473. DOI: 10.5194/hess-18-1467-2014.

Etheridge, J. R, F. Birgand, J. A. Osborne, C. L. Osburn, M. R. Burchell and J. Irving (2014). “Using in situ ultraviolet-visual spectroscopy to measure nitrogen, carbon, phosphorus, and suspended solids concentrations at a high frequency in a brackish tidal marsh”. In: Limnol. Oceanogr. Methods 12.1, pp. 10-22. DOI: 10.4319/lom.2014.12.10.

Etheridge, J. R, A. Lepistö, K. Granlund, K. Rankinen, F. Birgand and M. R. Burchell (2014). “Reducing uncertainty in the calibration and validation of the INCA-N model by using soft data”. En. In: Hydrol. Res. 45.1, pp. 73-88. DOI: 10.2166/nh.2013.039.

2013 (6)

Billy, C, F. Birgand, P. Ansart, J. Peschard, M. Sebilo and J. Tournebize (2013). “Factors controlling nitrate concentrations in surface waters of an artificially drained agricultural watershed”. En. In: Landsc. Ecol. 28.4, pp. 665-684. DOI: 10.1007/s10980-013-9872-2.

Birgand, F, G. Lellouche and T. W. Appelboom (2013). “Measuring flow in non-ideal conditions for short-term projects: Uncertainties associated with the use of stage-discharge rating curves”. In: J. Hydrol. 503, pp. 186-195. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2013.09.007.

Brown, R. A, F. Birgand and W. F. Hunt (2013). “Analysis of Consecutive Events for Nutrient and Sediment Treatment in Field-Monitored Bioretention Cells”. En. In: Water Air Soil Pollut. 224.6, p. 1581. DOI: 10.1007/s11270-013-1581-6.

Etheridge, J. R, F. Birgand, M. R. Burchell and B. T. Smith (2013). “Addressing the fouling of in situ ultraviolet-visual spectrometers used to continuously monitor water quality in brackish tidal marsh waters”. En. In: J. Environ. Qual. 42.6, pp. 1896-1901. DOI: 10.2134/jeq2013.02.0049.

Gilmore, T. E, F. Birgand and K. W. Chapman (2013). “Source and magnitude of error in an inexpensive image-based water level measurement system”. In: J. Hydrol. 496, pp. 178-186. DOI: 10.1016/j.jhydrol.2013.05.011.

Moatar, F, M. Meybeck, S. Raymond, F. Birgand and F. Curie (2013). “River flux uncertainties predicted by hydrological variability and riverine material behaviour”. In: Hydrol. Process. 27.25, pp. 3535-3546. DOI: 10.1002/hyp.9464.

2011 (3)

Billy, C, F. Birgand, M. Sebilo, G. Billen, J. Tournebize and C. Kao (2011). “Nitrate dynamics in artificially drained nested watersheds”. In: Phys. Chem. Earth 36.12, pp. 506-514. DOI: 10.1016/j.pce.2008.09.007.

Birgand, F, T. W. Appelboom, G. M. Chescheir and R. W. Skaggs (2011). “Estimating Nitrogen, Phosphorus, and Carbon Fluxes in Forested and Mixed-used Watersheds of the Lower Coastal Plain of North Carolina: Uncertainties Associated with Infrequent Sampling”. In: Trans. ASABE 54.6, pp. 2099-2110. DOI: 10.13031/2013.40668.

Birgand, F, C. Faucheux, G. Gruau, F. Moatar and M. Meybeck (2011). “Uncertainties in Assessing Annual Nitrate Loads and Concentration Indicators: Part 2. Deriving Sampling Frequency Charts in Brittany, France”. In: Trans. ASABE 54.1, pp. 93-104. DOI: 10.13031/2013.36263.

2010 (4)

Appelboom, T. W, G. M. Chescheir, F. Birgand, R. W. Skaggs, J. W. Gilliam and D. Amatya (2010). “Temperature Coefficient for Modeling Denitrification in Surface Water Sediments Using the Mass Transfer Coefficient”. In: Trans. ASABE 53.2, pp. 465-474. DOI: 10.13031/2013.29578.

Billy, C, G. Billen, M. Sebilo, F. Birgand and J. Tournebize (2010). “Nitrogen isotopic composition of leached nitrate and soil organic matter as an indicator of denitrification in a sloping drained agricultural plot and adjacent uncultivated riparian buffer strips”. In: Soil Biol. Biochem. 42.1, pp. 108-117. DOI: 10.1016/j.soilbio.2009.09.026.

Birgand, F, C. Faucheux, G. Gruau, B. Augeard, F. Moatar and P. Bordenave (2010). “Uncertainties in Assessing Annual Nitrate Loads and Concentration Indicators: Part 1. Impact of Sampling Frequency and Load Estimation Algorithms”. In: Trans. ASABE 53.2, pp. 437-446. DOI: 10.13031/2013.29584.

Henine, H, Y. Nédélec, B. Augeard, F. Birgand, C. Chaumont, P. Ribstein and C. Kao (2010). “Effect of Pipe Pressurization on the Discharge of a Tile Drainage System”. In: Vadose Zone J. 9, pp. 36-42. DOI: 10.2136/vzj2008.0152.

2009 (1)

Moatar, F, F. Birgand, M. Meybeck, C. Faucheux and S. Raymond (2009). “Incertitudes sur les métriques de qualité des cours d’eau (médianes et quantiles de concentrations, flux, cas des nutriments) évaluées a partir de suivis discrets”. Fr. In: La Houille Blanche, pp. 68-76. DOI: 10.1051/lhb/2009029.

2007 (3)

Birgand, F, R. W. Skaggs, G. M. Chescheir and J. W. Gilliam (2007). “Nitrogen Removal in Streams of Agricultural Catchments-A Literature Review”. In: Crit. Rev. Environ. Sci. Technol. 37.5, pp. 381-487. DOI: 10.1080/10643380600966426. eprint: http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/10643380600966426.

Peu, P, F. Birgand and J. Martinez (2007). “Long term fate of slurry derived nitrogen in soil: a case study with a macro-lysimeter experiment having received high loads of pig slurry (Solepur)”. En. In: Bioresour. Technol. 98.17, pp. 3228-3234. DOI: 10.1016/j.biortech.2006.07.019.

Turlan, T, F. Birgand and P. Marmonier (2007). “Comparative use of field and laboratory mesocosms for in-stream nitrate uptake measurement”. En. In: Int. J. Lim. 43.1, pp. 41-51. DOI: 10.1051/limn/2007026.

2005 (2)

Kenny, C, S. Yamulki, M. Blackwell, E. Maltby, P. French and F. Birgand (2005). “The release of nitrous oxide from the intertidal zones of two European estuaries in response to increased ammonium and nitrate loading”. En. In: Water Air Soil Pollut. Focus 4.6, pp. 61-66. DOI: 10.1007/s11267-005-3014-z.

Turpin, N, P. Bontems, G. Rotillon, I. Bärlund, M. Kaljonen, S. Tattari, F. Feichtinger, P. Strauss, R. Haverkamp, M. Garnier, A. Lo Porto, G. Benigni, A. Leone, M. N. Ripa, O. Eklo, E. Romstad, T. Bioteau, F. Birgand, P. Bordenave, R. Laplana, et al. (2005). “AgriBMPWater: systems approach to environmentally acceptable farming”. In: Environ. Model. Softw. 20.2, pp. 187-196. DOI: 10.1016/j.envsoft.2003.09.004.


Refereed Articles en Français (8)

2015 (1)

Billy, V. de, J. Tournebize, G. Barnaud, M. Benoît, F. Birgand, J. Garnier, B. Lesaffre, C. Lévêque, G. de Marsily, S. Muller, A. Musy and D. Zimmer (2015). “Compenser la destruction de zones humides. Retours d’expérience sur les méthodes et réflexions inspirées par le projet d’aéroport de Notre-Dame-des-Landes (France)”. Fr. In: Nat. Sci. Soc 23.1, pp. 27-41. DOI: 10.1051/nss/2015008.

2009 (2)

Birgand, F, C. Faucheux, G. Gruau, B. Augeard, F. Moatar, M. Meybeck, A. Bouédo and P. Bordenave (2009). “Une approche quantitative du rôle de la fréquence d’échantillonnage sur les incertitudes associées aux calculs des flux et des concentrations moyennes en nitrate en Bretagne”. In: Ingénieries 59-60, pp. 23-37.

Moatar, F, F. Birgand, M. Meybeck, C. Faucheux and S. Raymond (2009). “Incertitudes sur les métriques de qualité des cours d’eau (médianes et quantiles de concentrations, flux, cas des nutriments) évaluées a partir de suivis discrets”. Fr. In: La Houille Blanche, pp. 68-76. DOI: 10.1051/lhb/2009029.

2008 (1)

Tournebize, J, M. Arlot, C. Billy, F. Birgand, J. Gillet and A. Dutertre (2008). “Quantification et maîtrise des flux de nitrates : de la parcelle drainée au bassin versant”. In: Ingénieries - Numéro Spécial ``Azote, Phosphore et pesticides’’, pp. 5-25.

2005 (2)

Birgand, F, J. Benoist, É. Novince, N. Gilliet, P. Saint-Cast and É. Le Saos (2005a). “Guide d’application de la technique du Doppler continu pour une section calibrée en bois”. In: Ingénieries 41, pp. 77-82.

Birgand, F, J. Benoist, É. Novince, N. Gilliet, P. Saint-Cast and É. Le Saos (2005b). “Mesure des débits à l’aide de débitmètres ultrasoniques Doppler - Cas des petits cours d’eau ruraux”. In: Ingénieries 41, pp. 23-38.

2004 (1)

Birgand, F, J. Lefrançois, C. Grimaldi, É. Novince, N. Gilliet and C. Gascuel-Odoux (2004). “Mesure des flux et échantillonnage des matières en suspension sur de petits cours d’eau”. In: Ingénieries 40, pp. 21-35.

2002 (1)

Benoist, J. and F. Birgand (2002). “Les dispositifs de mesure des débits dans les bassins versants agricoles”. In: Ingénieries 32, pp. 51-63.


Theses and Book Chapters


Invited Speaker


Oral Presentations (120)


Posters at conferences (42)


Media exposure


Selected Reports


Professional Societies


Professional services on campus


Professional services off campus